Climate change
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Position of Kazakhstan
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The Seventh session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (CoP-7) was a turning point. The Conference was held from 29 October to 9 November 2001 in Marrakech (Morocco). The main objective of the Conference was to review the implementation of the Buenos-Aires Action Plan. Parties were to negotiate on a number of issues, reflected in the CoP-7 agenda:

  • Adoption of the decisions giving effect to the Bonn Agreement,
  • National systems, adjustments and guidelines under Articles 5, 7 and 8 of the Kyoto Protocol,
  • Land use, land-use change and forestry,
  • Work programme on mechanisms,
  • Procedures and mechanisms on compliance under the Kyoto Protocol,
  • "Good practices" in policies and measures,
  • Input to the World Summit on Sustainable Development,
  • Proposals to amend the lists in Annexes 1 and 2 to the Convention,
  • Matters relating to national communications under the Convention.

Governments are ready to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. After several years of tough negotiations, the institutions and detailed procedures of the Kyoto Protocol are now in place. The Conference completed and agreed the mechanisms and detailed methods of the Kyoto Protocol implementation, thus opening the way to widespread ratification of the Protocol by Parties of the Convention and its early entry into force. Accordingly, even in case the USA is not in the Kyoto Protocol, it can enter into force and the targets it stipulates for can be achieved.

Besides, the Conference made important progress on strengthening the flow of financial and technological support to developing countries so that they can move towards a sustainable energy future. The signal was sent to business, local governments and the general public those climate-friendly products, services and activities will be rewarded by consumers and national policies alike.

The meeting also adopted the Marrakech Ministerial Declaration as input into next September's World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg.

Kazakhstan is an active participant of the climate negotiating process. The representative delegation of the Republic of Kazakhstan participated in the Conference. It consisted of the head of the delegation Vice-Minister of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection, First Vice-Minister of Economy and Trade, representatives of the Ministries of Energy and Mineral Resources, of Justice and of Foreign Affairs - the key ministries and departments of Kazakhstan involved in the process of addressing the climate change challenge.

Decision on the status of Kazakhstan under the Convention and Protocol opens the way to ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the Republic of Kazakhstan. Among the numerous problems, discussed during CoP-7 meetings, the most important for the Republic of Kazakhstan was the question of Kazakhstan entering Annex 1 to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. As is well known, this question was discussed at CoP-5, but the Parties failed to reach agreement because of the position of countries of Group 77 and China on political ground. Kazakhstan arrived at the Seventh Conference of the Parties with a ready-made position, preliminarily discussed with many participants of the Convention. The first plenary meeting of CoP-7 decided to pass the question of Kazakhstan entering Annex 1 to the Subsidiary Body for Implementation for consideration. Having discussed the issue with the Parties, the Subsidiary Body for Implementation prepared a draft conclusion, which later, at the final plenary meeting of CoP-7, was adopted by consensus. The conclusion in full measure reflects the position of Kazakhstan, its interests and plans to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. It unambiguously defines both the process of Kazakhstan entering Annex 1 and its current status.

Kazakhstan will become a Party included in Annex 1 for the purposes of the Kyoto Protocol upon ratification of the Protocol by Kazakhstan and its entry into force.
At the same time, Kazakhstan will continue to be a Party not included in Annex 1 for the purposes of the Convention that will allow launching Clean Development Mechanism projects since the beginning of 2002.

During the Conference of the Parties the delegation of Kazakhstan met with foreign delegations and spoke both at meetings of subsidiary bodies and at CoP-7 plenary meetings. At the high-level segment of the Conference on 8 November the head of our delegation addressed the Parties with a statement identifying official position of the Republic of Kazakhstan. His speech included the key elements of our position and the plan of actions aimed to ratify the Kyoto Protocol.

Only an active position in implementing the economic mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol can provide benefits to the government, public and business. Kazakhstan has a number of reasons to have an active position in the issue of Kazakhstan entering Annex 1 to the Convention, based on its national and strategic interests:

Above all, it is critically important for sustainable development of Kazakhstan, its balanced energy use (e.g., having rich stocks of different mineral and renewable energy resources, Kazakhstan uses coal to generate 90 per cent of its energy). Thus, diversification of energy consumption, which is its partial replacement with other energy resources (oil, gas, and renewable energy: wind, solar, biogas, etc.), is a strategic goal of sustainable development in the energy sector.

Secondly, the Government has declared utilization of associate gas at oil deposits a priority approach. It is a very important strategic goal, and it necessary to build capacity for implementation of such projects by both international and national oil companies. Increasing the share of gas in energy consumption and coal replacement will contribute to addressing the problem of global warming, will significantly raise investment attractiveness of Kazakhstan market and the image of the country.

On the third hand, the Kyoto Protocol is the first attempt to improve the global environment using financial market-based mechanisms. This mechanism could potentially become a model used long into the future and possibly used for other types of global environmental issues important to Kazakhstan.

Besides, Kazakhstan has enormous potential for implementation of projects aimed to reduce greenhouse gases, which are the main contributors to global warming. That's why passive participation in CDM projects (technical assistance and transfer of carbon credits to countries included in Annex 1) will not be the best way to participate in Kyoto mechanisms. It is more important to become an active participant of the process and realize joint projects, accumulate carbon credits and later participate in trading, or, using the potential they offer, to increase competitiveness of our energy resources at the world market.

However, most importantly, Kazakhstan's interest in becoming an Annex 1 country is to prove our adherence to the principle of common responsibility to reduce anthropogenic activities harming the global environment.

Active participation in the process of combating global warming is the way to sustainable development the Republic of Kazakhstan chooses. In general, the decision, adopted by the Conference of the Parties on Kazakhstan, has positively affected the image of our country in the opinion of other participants of the UNFCCC process. The Republic of Kazakhstan chose its own way and mechanism of acceding the Kyoto Protocol and made a break-through in the negotiating process that is supported by the Conference of the Parties. Kazakhstan has achieved the progress to inform the world community about at the upcoming World Summit on Sustainable Development, which will be held next September in Johannesburg. Kazakhstan, undertaking voluntary obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and taking active efforts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases through improvement of energy efficiency and other measures, was supported by 4,500 participants of CoP-7, representing more than 170 countries of the world.

Statement of the head of Kazakhstani delegation on the session of COP-7

Statement of the Kazakhstani delegation on SBI session

Decision on conclusions Amendment proposed by Kazakhstan to add its name to the list in Annex I

Marrakesh Declaraton

Координационный центр по изменению климата

Click for Astana, Kazakhstan Forecast

Комплексное сохранение водно-болотных угодий Казахстана

Mercury pollution at Povladar

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