Climate change
ODS programme
Ways of solving
Position of Kazakhstan
GHG inventory
Activities implemented jointly, AIJ 

Under a pilot phase that ends by 2000, according to Art. 4.2 UNFCCC, AIJ activities can be carried out through partnerships between an investor from a developed country and a counterpart in a host country. The purpose is to involve private-sector money in the transfer of technology and know-how.


A verifiable demonstration or proof that a project would not have been undertaken if it were not for its greenhouse gas mitigation benefits. Reference should be made to suitable regulatory, technology related, financial as well as market-related parameters that show:

  • the emission reduction was not required by law,
  • the technologies that deliver the emission reduction are innovative,
  • the value of the emission reductions improve the financial performance of the project above a threshold criteria and
  • the emission reductions contributed to overcoming market and other barriers.
  Afforestation The act or process of establishing a forest on land that had not been forested in relatively recent history.
 Annex B Refers to Kyoto Protocol Annex B, a listing of the Annex I Parties with their commitment to emissions reductions.
  Annex I UNFCCC Annex I. List of countries that have committed themselves to a quantitative GHG emissions reduction target (OECD members plus most Central and Eastern European Countries).
  Annex II UNFCCC Annex II List of countries that have a special obligation to help developing countries with financial and technological resources (OECD members plus the European Union).
  Assumptions The initial hypotheses built into the project.
  Banking The act of carrying forward emission reduction units, certified emission reductions or emission rights that were either generated, purchased or allocated but not used towards emission limitation objectives in one commitment period to the next such period.
  Baseline A projected level of future emissions against which reductions by project activities could be determined. The baseline shows greenhouse gas emissions or sink enhancement that would have occurred in the absence of the project activity. 
  Baseline document A document describing forecasted emissions without the project during each year of the crediting period as compared to the project. The document includes the projected emission reductions to be generated by the project as established on the basis of this comparison..
  Baseline study Document which objectively and systematically establishes the situation that would have occurred without starting the specific JI-project, regarding GHG emissions by means of measurements and calculations.
  Baseline validity period The period of time for which the validity of a baseline is approved for a JI/CDM project. A baseline must be reviewed at the end of the baseline validity period. At that stage, the baseline can either be extended or adjusted to new circumstances. Accumulated baseline extensions can not exceed the crediting period.
 Carbon credit Generic term for all kinds of GHG emission reductions from project-based activities including emission reduction units and certified emission reduction units.
 Clean development mechanism (CDM) The Kyoto Protocol (article 12) establishes the CDM to enable industrialized countries to finance emissions-avoiding projects in developing countries and receive credit for doing so.
 CDM Adaptation Fee Potential fees charged to projects or national bodies as a share of proceeds according to Art. 12 Para. 8 of the Kyoto Protocol; to be used to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in meeting the costs of adaptation.
 Certification Written assurance by an independent and qualified organization that the project has, during a specified time period, achieved the verified reductions.
Conference of the Parties (COP) The COP is the supreme body of the Convention. It currently meets once a year to review the Convention's progress. 
 Crediting period Period of time in which the project developer can claim emission reductions; limited at maximum to the end of a project's life or to when it becomes non-additional.
 Certified Emission Reduction Unit (CER) Reduction or sequestration of GHG emissions by 1,000 kg CO2 -equivalent resulting from a project in a non-Annex I country aimed at reducing man-made emissions (Art 12) that count towards binding emission limitation objectives, calculated in accordance with decision 2 / COP3.
  Emission factor A coefficient that relates the activity data to the amount of chemical compound which is the source of later emissions. Emission factors are often based on a sample of measurement data, averaged to develop a representative rate of emission for a given activity level under a given set of operating conditions.
 Emission Reduction Unit (ERU) Reduction or sequestration of GHG emissions by 1,000 kg CO2 -equivalent resulting from a project in an Annex I country aimed at reducing man-made emissions (art 6.3 KP) during the five year commitment period 2008 - 2012, calculated in accordance with decision 2 / COP3.
 Greenhouse gases (GHG) Gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and man-made, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation, not covered by the Montreal Protocol. The major GHG is water vapour, and also Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
 Host country /party The country ( company, organization or individual), which implement a project in its premises as an act of JI project.
  Indicators Factors that will indicate whether the project is running effectively. Indicators are used: to measure progress towards immediate and wider objectives; to assess inputs and measure outputs; to indicate changes in the development of the project. Indicators may be: independent, verifiable, specific, accessible, sufficient number and detail (qualitative).
  Implementation All activities carried out specifically to secure that the project as described in the project design documents, the baseline study and the monitoring plan is put into operation.
 Investor country /party The country ( company, organization or individual), which invests in a project on a host party's premises as an act of a JI or CDM project.
  Intergovernmental agreement Agreement between the governments of the acquiring and host countries regarding overall co-operation with respect to JI or CDM (for example Memorandum of Understanding, Letter of Intent, Agreement, Treaty, and Protocol).
 Joint Implementation (JI) The fulfillment of the reduction commitment under art. 3 KP by one country (acquiring country) through acquiring, in accordance with art. 6 KP, the ERUs resulting from projects in another country.
 Kyoto Protocol (KP) UNFCCC protocol regarding the ultimate objective of achieving quantified emissions limitation and reduction commitments. Protocol becomes effective after it is ratified by no less than 55 countries that also signed the UNFCCC, on share which receipt for a minimum of 55% of aggregate world CO2 emissions for 1990. 
  Leakage An unexpected increase in GHG emissions, or a decrease in GHG sequestration, caused by the project activity outside the project boundaries, but not accounted for in the project baseline.
 Monitoring Periodic systematic surveillance/measurement of a project's performance and impact. It involves collecting project data on greenhouse gas emissions reductions or other impacts that occur as a result of the project by direct measurement, and comparing it with the pre-established baseline.
 Monitoring plan Plan describing all relevant activities for registration, monitoring and measurement to provide transparent and verifiable information on project performance and number of ERUs /CERs generated.
 Monitoring report Report prepared by the project developer recording the outcome of the monitoring process.
Operational entity see: Validation/Verification body
 Operations All activities carried out specifically to ensure that the project meets the requirements as described in the project design documents, the baseline study and the monitoring plan.
  Project An activity undertaken in the context of the Kyoto Protocol's JI /CDM mechanism, which intends to generate emission reductions compared to what have occurred in the absence of the project.
  Project boundaries The project's defined geographical limits, its lifetime and its intended use of resources and technology.
Project organization (developer/operator) Company, corporation, firm, enterprise or institution, responsible for the JI/CDM project implementation.
  Preventive action Action taken to eliminate the causes of a potential project defect or other undesirable situation in order to prevent occurrence.
 Project management Overall management function responsible for the performance and conformity of the project in all stages (design, implementation and operation) from first application to end of the contract period.
  Registration Formal acceptance by the executive board of a validated project as a CDM/JI activity. Registration is a prerequisite for the verification, certification and issuance of CERs/ERUs related to that project activity.
 Reforestation The act or process of re-establishing a forest on land that had been deforested in relatively recent history.
  Sink Any process, activity or mechanism that removes GHG, an aerosol or precursor of GHG from the atmosphere.
  Source Any process, activity or mechanism that releases GHG, an aerosol or precursor of GHG into the atmosphere.
  Stakeholders People, groups, organizations and communities involved in, benefiting from, (or impacted by ) the project. 
 Transaction Costs

?an be classified into:

  1. the cost regarding the project finding, the evaluation , and the management of the project , and
  2. the cost specially generated as JI /CDM (application, documentation, demonstration, monitoring, distribution of credits, etc).
 Validation  Confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence by an independent and qualified organization before registration that the project design documents, the baseline study and the monitoring plan meet prescribed requirements. Validation includes the confirmation that the emission reduction as claimed by the project are considered realistic.
  Validation/verification body An independent body, recognized by the pertinent Government - or its representative - as being capable of validating and verifying projects, based upon the regulatory requirements.
  Validator/Verifier Person qualified to perform validations/verifications. By meeting the relevant regulatory requirements and those of the validation/verification body.
  Verification Confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence by an independent and qualified organization that the project emission reductions are achieved and that other JI/CDM requirements are met. 
 Verification criteria Set of policies, procedures or requirements against which collected verification evidence are compared. Criteria are the UNFCCC requirements and those incorporated in the project design documents, the baseline document and the monitoring plan.


Координационный центр по изменению климата

Click for Astana, Kazakhstan Forecast

Комплексное сохранение водно-болотных угодий Казахстана

Mercury pollution at Povladar

Rambler's Top100