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Position of Kazakhstan: internal policy and international obligations

Position of Kazakhstan: internal policy and international obligations


  • 1992. Kazakhstan signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
  • 1995. The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan ratified the Convention.
  • 1997. On the threshold of the Third Conference of the Parties to the UN FCCC in Kyoto the Ministry of Foreign Affaires of the Republic of Kazakhstan issued the statement that the country is ready to participate in discussions of actions for reducing and limiting the GHG emission levels based on the emission levels for 1990. In its statement Kazakhstan supported the World Bank Carbon Initiative on establishment of international carbon credits market.
  • 1998. The Fourth Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention. Kazakhstan declared its intent to undertake voluntary emission reduction commitments. The Initial National Communication of the Republic of Kazakhstan under the UNFCCC is published.
  • 1999. In March Kazakhstan signed the Kyoto Protocol as a non-Party to Annex I of the UNFCCC and a non-Party to Annex ? of the Kyoto Protocol. In April Kazakhstan stated its intent to accede Annex I to the UNFCCC. The working group on the problems of the Kyoto Protocol ratification worked from July till December.
  • 2000. Kazakhstan continues works to accede to Annex I to the UNFCCC and ratify the Kyoto Protocol. Interagency Center on Climate Change, including on realization of mechanisms for greenhouse gas emission reduction, is established

Kazakhstan places strong emphasis on the climate change problem. As in any other country undergoing the process of transition to market economy, this problem is of highest priority since its solution has been associated with the national concept of environmental security and sustainable development.

With the financial and technical support of Annex II Parties to the UNFCCC (USA, the Netherlands, Japan) since 1993 Kazakhstan has researched climate change in the region, evaluated vulnerability of ecosystems and specific sectors of economy to possible climate change, developed some effective adaptation measures. It compiled national inventory of GHG emissions and removals for 1990 that will serve as a baseline level for future GHG emissions. One of the main outputs of activities under the UNFCCC shall be identification of measures to mitigate climate change impacts in different sectors of Kazakhstan's economy according to their priority value from the point of view of emissions reduction and GHG sinks development potential and in conformity with the principle of sustainable development (The Initial National Communication of the Republic of Kazakhstan under the UN FCCC, Almaty, 1998).

Evaluation of potential climate change impacts in Kazakhstan (by KazNIIMOSK):

  • Cropping capacity of spring wheat will decrease by 44-51%; of winter wheat - by 12-35 %;
    at the beginning of the growing season yield capacity of pasture vegetation will increase but it will sharply decrease then;
    due to the 27-57 days increase of hot period, the wool clip in the sheep breeding will be reduced by 11-19 %; lamb litter will be decreased by 20-26 %;
  • Water resources: the Tobol River flow will reduce by 24-26 %, and the Ulba and Uba rivers flow- by 23-29 %;
  • In the mountain areas the snow line will rise by 500-700 meters; mudflow activity will increase;

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