The IPCC was established in 1988 jointly by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and UN Environmental Programme (UNEP) with the objective to prepare and present periodical scientific and technical reports on climate change, to find answers to many emerging questions and to identify possible political impacts of the increasing greenhouse effect at the international level. The IPCC does not carry out its own scientific researches. Its goal is to evaluate relevant scientific research information on climate change, available in the world reviews, magazines, and books and in traditional practice. It prepares reports on the following issues:
Assessment of all available information on scientific issues, impacts and economic aspects of climate change, adaptation to climate change and its mitigation;
Evaluation and necessary development of methodologies, for example, Operational guidelines for greenhouse gas emission inventory;
Provision on request of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCC and its subsidiary bodies of consultations and special reports on scientific, technical, social and economic aspects of climate change.
The IPCC is commissioned to assess scientific information, related to the three aspects of climate change:
Climate change caused by increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere;
The problem of vulnerability of economy and natural systems to climate change, assessment of negative and positive impacts of climate change and alternatives of adaptation to them;
Evaluation of potential activities to mitigate climate change impacts and greenhouse gases emission scenarios.
These goals should be achieved by three working groups of the IPCC. The first IPCC report on climate change was published in 1991, then the IPCC continued its work on long-term basis. The second report was published in 1995. In 2001 the IPCC is finalizing the Third Assessment Report.
The Panel holds plenary sessions about once per year. In 2001 it is planned to hold three plenary sessions of every working group to discuss their contribution in the Third Assessment Report and identify terms of reference for decision-makers. Experts from the Parties to the UN and WMO are invited and they participate in revision and preparation of reports. The IPCC procedures include preliminary distribution of reports for governmental and expert consideration. Besides, a workshop for experts on land-use and forestry changes and an annual common session of the IPCC will be held.
Since the time the sessions of the IPCC working groups were organized and first held, specialists of National Hydrometeorological Services, including scientists of the Kazhydromet's KazNIIMOSK, have actively participated in their work. Specially appointed experts who are leading scientists of the UN member countries prepare the reports. Scientists from developing countries for the first time participated in preparation of the Third Assessment Report in expert groups.
As a rule, the IPCC provides limited financial support to participants of its sessions, to one participant form every country. The Ministry of Foreign Affaires after consultations with the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Protection nominates a candidature and sends a corresponding letter to the IPCC Secretary Dr. N. Sundararaman. The IPCC Secretariat is situated in Geneva. A limited number of participants possessing relevant expertise and qualification, is invited to participate in ad hoc workshops of the IPCC.